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Inside the Brain

 

Only 1% of dementia cases can be cured with treatment. These types of dementia usually evolve as a side affect from conditions such as an operable brain tumor, vitamin B12 deficiency, thyroid disease, hydrocephalus, alcoholism or depression. All other types of dementia are rarely reversible.

Vascular dementia, which occurs in about 10% to 20% of cases, often results from a series of small strokes that destroy brain cells or from deposits of amyloid protein on blood vessels which cause them to rupture. Symptoms may include paralysis on one side, incontinence, and a mask like expression. This type of dementia is usually brought about by chronic high blood pressure, diabetes or coronary heart disease.

Lewy Body dementia accounts for 5% to 15% of cases and is caused by deposits of alpha-synuclein protein throughout the brain. Those with this type of dementia have memory loss symptoms the same as Alzheimer’s in addition to motor problems similar to Parkinson’s disease.

With Alzheimer’s disease, the most common type at 60% to 80% of the cases, the damage to the brain is more severe and ultimately affects larger regions. In the Alzheimer diseased brain,  nerve cells (neurons) stop functioning, lose connections with each other and ultimately die. The death of many neurons in key parts of the brain causes those areas to atrophy and shrink.

The strongest theory for the cause of Alzheimer’s disease is based on the presence of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain of patients. Researchers still can’t say, though, whether they are a cause or byproduct of the disease.

Amyloid plaques are a mixture of of abnormal proteins and nerve cell fragments that develop in the tissue between nerve cells., They are formed when the amyloid precursor protein which is part of the nerve cell membrane is broken down by enzymes when a nerve dies. One of the enzymes, beta-secretase, cuts the protein into a piece, the plaque, which is insoluble. This piece is toxic and eventually causes other nerve cells to die.

Neurofibrillary tangles are formed when a protein called tau becomes twisted. Tau plays an important part in the internal support structure of microtubules. In healthy neurons, microtubules act like railroad tracks carrying nutrients from cell to cell. When tau becomes twisted, it disturbs the function of the microtubules which, in turn, affects the communication within the nerve cells and leads to their death.

Another discovery characteristic to Alzheimer’s disease is the reduction of cholinergic neurons in the brain. These neurons, prolific in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, produce acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter critical to memory and learning. As the disease progresses, acetylcholine levels drop dramatically and the dementia worsens. Levels of other neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine also drop which have a direct affect on patient behavior. It is thought the reduction is due to brain cell death.

Alzheimer’s is named for the German physician who first identified it 1906

 

 

A Forum on Dementia

 

Welcome to my new, redesigned blog space. Some of you might have followed my original blog about my mother and her journey through dementia. Others of you may have just discovered my site.

Since my mother’s death, and inspired by her, I have been working toward two goals. The first, at the urging of many, I have taken my blog writings and expanded them into a book. My purpose remains the same: to share my mother’s experience in the hope that it will help others. During the course of writing my blog, I spoke with others and received messages from people from all over the United States and even a few from other countries. Universally they had the same reaction “That sounds just like my mother(or whomever). I know what it’s like.” By offering my book on Amazon I hope to reach more people.

My second goal was to learn as much as I could about dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease. Public awareness of dementia has grown by leaps and bounds and medical researchers and other scientists are discovering more about it each day. Though I have gained much knowledge about it, my goal has become never ending.

My purpose for this site is to share some of what I have learned and information I have gathered from my study of dementia. There is a phethora of information out there on the web, and sifting through it all can be daunting. I don’t claim to be a medical professional or psychologist; I will leave the technical explanations up to them. What I will do is refer you to articles or web pages for more in depth knowledge. My plan is to write every two weeks about some aspect about dementia. In addition, I would like to see this web page as a place to share information and serve as a community forum for those whose lives are or have been touched by dementia. I will share names of organizations that are advocates for dementia or Alzheimers, as well as sites to go to for up-to-date information about the disease and help for caregivers. Anyone else who wishes to contribute something that others would find helpful will be encouraged to do so.