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A major discovery has been made in the research of Alzheimer’s disease, as reported in the July 2018 edition of JAMA Neurology. Researchers at Yale University Alzheimer’s Research center have been able to measure the density of neural synapses in living patients. Up until the present, measurement of synaptic density was only possible in brains of people after they died.

Levels of a certain protein, SV2A, found in the transmission of neurotransmitter chemicals from one neuron to another were measured with position emission tomography (PET). The participants with MCI or mild Alzheimer’s disease who were compared to cognitively unimpaired individuals were found to have significantly less SV2A in the neural synapses in the hippocampus indicating a decrease in synaptic binding. The hippocampus is the part of the brain that forms memories, and it has been established that there is a relationship to damage in that area and Alzheimer’s disease.

The PET scan results also correlated with scores on episodic (short term) memory tests as well as those for Alzheimer’s. Other brain imaging tests, though protein was measured, did not offer the correlation with tests for cognition, which is fundamental to the study.

This important breakthrough of a reliable test for synaptic density in living people can provide a better measure of disease progression and help in evaluation of treatment with drugs in clinical trials. Reference: Chen MK, et al. Assessing synaptic density in Alzheimer disease with synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A positron emission tomographic imaging. JAMA Neurology 2018 July 16.


A Swedish study that spanned four decades and involved 200 women discovered that those who have high levels of physical activity in middle age are 90% less likely to develop dementia as compared to women who are moderately fit. The women were tested for physical fitness by means of a bicycle test and were monitored and tested for evidence of dementia. They found that the average age for the onset of dementia was 90 for those highly fit and 79 for moderately fit women. Reference: Mind Report.newsmax.com

If that doesn’t make you want to get up and move, this next study will!

Multiple studies have shown that physical exercise helps to protect memory and cognitive function. It can also increase the size of the hippocampus, where memories are created. Research conducted at UCLA explored the impact of sitting and the brain’s hippocampal thickness. After recruiting 35 volunteers they recored how many hours they spent sitting each day the previous week. They then performed MRI scans to measure the medial temporal lobe where new memories are formed. There was a correlation between the number of hours of sedentary behavior and thinning of the lobe.  Note: This was a small study and more research needs to be done and variables taken into consideration before general conclusions can be drawn. Reference: Mind Report.newsmax.com

 Do you know anyone hard of hearing who doesn’t always wear their hearing aids? They may not want to bother or want to deliberately tune people out. Let them know: Loss of hearing is a significant risk factor for dementia.

Experts don’t know yet what links hearing loss to dementia, but it is suggested that it may be due to the decrease in social interaction. If you don’t understand what is being said and don’t participate fully in conversations, you may lose the benefits that come from that type of mental stimulation. Reference: Alzheimer’s Association

Excellent sites to see what is being done currently in research for dementia and Alzheimer’s and opportunities to participate in clinical trials:

National Institute on Aging  www.nia.nih.gov

Bright Focus Foundation www.brightfocus.org 

Alzheimer’s Association  alz.org

A Medical Assessment

You see your parent or loved one begin to have memory problems: they ask the same questions over and over; can’t remember where they placed something; have difficulty making decisions; forget to pay bills. After administering an informal memory or task test you believe your loved one has dementia. Now what? It is time for a doctor’s opinion. 

You don’t need to rush to see a neurologist unless you think the dementia is a result of a recent head trauma. Your primary care doctor or internist, preferably one who is familiar with the patient’s history, should be okay to start. If you are in a position to choose a doctor, try to find someone who specializes in working with older patients. When my mother moved away from her home to live closer to me, I first chose a general practitioner who was near her facility and recommended by others. As her condition worsened, I sought out a geriatric doctor.


What to expect in a medical assessment for dementia:

  • The first step in a diagnosis is a thorough physical and medical history evaluation. The doctor wants to rule out any conditions that may be related to the onset of dementia. Vision, hearing, cardiovascular, or thyroid disorders can have a direct effect on memory.

  • The doctor may administer a test to assess memory or simply ask the patient a few questions. After working with aging patients for many years, some doctors are familiar with the responses and behaviors of those exhibiting the signs of dementia and don’t need a detailed analysis.

  • Blood work will be ordered. The American Academy of Neurology recommends the following evaluation: 

                    Complete bloodcell count

                    Electrolyte levels in the blood (potassium, sodium and chloride)

                     Blood levels of glucose, urea nitrogen and creatinine

                     Blood levels of vitamin B12

                    Liver  and thyroid function tests

                    Depression screening

                    Noncontrast computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging                                                                                        (MRI)

  • After gathering all the information about the patient, the doctor can then do an evaluation. First, a determination is made if the dementia is reversible due to conditions such as a brain tumor, depression, vitamin deficiency, hydrocephalus, or toxic reaction to a medication. If these conditions are eliminated as a cause of dementia s/he can then assess the symptoms. Certain diseases, such as Huntington’s Disease or Lewy Body Dementia are accompanied by certain behavioral markers that the doctor can identify, So the absence of these markers points to Alzheimer’s. Even though over 60% of dementia cases end up with Alzheimer’s Disease and the doctor probably suspects this is the case, this process of elimination is crucial so the doctor can decide how to proceed to help the patient.

    In many instances a diagnosis of Alzheimer’s is often not given immediately. Instead, the doctor may give the determination of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). This could be called the beginning stage of Alzheimer’s, but there are some people who do not process beyond this stage, however, for the majority, with further cognitive decline, it leads to Alzheimer’s.


  • Medications

    With a diagnosis of MCI the doctor may prescribe iron or other vitamins along with an antidepressant. If you have heard of supplements that may decrease the effects of dementia you need to ask the doctor his opinion. Be wary of supplements accompanied by a strong sales pitch. While gingko biloba is heavily touted, research has shown minimal positive results. Current research that shows promise include a mix of Vitamin E, vitamin C, alpha lipoic acid, coenzyme Q10, omega-3 fatty acids, curcumin and Huperzine A.

    There are two types of drugs approved by the FDA for use by Alzheimer’s patients. The first, Cholinesterase inhibitors, slow down the breakdown of acetylcholine, an important chemical linked to the formation of new memories. It is sold under the name Aricept, Exelon and Razadyne. The second, NMDA receptor antagonist, helps block the activity of the neuro-transmitter glutamate by binding it to NMDA receptors on brain cells. It is sold under the name Namende, NamendaXR and Namzaric. It should be noted that while these drugs may ease symptoms associated with Alzheimer’s disease, they may only work for a short period of time, and do not halt the disease.

    Note: Home-screening tests for Alzheimer are available, but the medical profession and the Alzheimer’s Association strongly do not approve of their use. They do not prove who does not have dementia and can cause undue psychological  anguish. There is also a test that those without dementia can request that identifies a APOE gene type that can signal a person is at risk for Alzheimer’s, but again, it is discouraged. There is the possibility that the person may not get the disease, and would spend needless time worrying instead of enjoying life.

Defining Dementia

Since my main focus of this blog will be on dementia we first need a clear definition of what it means. According to the New World Dictionary the psychiatric definition is “the loss or impairment of mental powers due to organic causes.” People with dementia have significantly impaired intellectual functioning that interferes with normal activities and relationships.

When I told people my mother was suffering from Dementia, they often said, “Oh Alzheimer’s.”, however, the two words are not synonymous. Dementia is a term used for a collection of symptoms which are caused by injury or disease to the brain. Alzheimer’s is a disease.

While it is true that the great majority of those with the symptoms of dementia may develop Alzheimers disease, it is only one kind. Other diseases that exhibit its symptoms are vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia, frontotemporal dementia, Hunington’s disease, and Creutzfelt-Jacob disease. Dementia symptoms also can occur in those whose brain has been affected by injury or drugs.

In the beginning my mother had what is called Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) which is early dementia. She had trouble with tasks that required reasoning, and could not remember what was said in conversations. She was able to live independently at first, but gradually her symptoms worsened. It is at this juncture that conflicts occur. Though the family realizes their loved one needs help, the person with dementia is usually not ready to give up his/her independence. And so, the caregiver challenge begins!

Here are some signs common to dementia
Impaired judgement
Faulty reasoning
Inappropriate behavior
Loss of communication skills
Disorientation to time and place
Gait, motor, and balance problems
Hallucinations, paranoia, agitation

Someone with dementia symptoms may
repeatedly ask the same questions
become lost or disoriented in familiar places
be unable to follow directions
be disoriented about the date or time of day
not recognize or be confused about familiar people
have difficulty with routine tasks such as paying the bills
neglect personal safety, hygiene, and nutrition

 According to the US National Institutes of Health:National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke  Although it is commom in very elderly individuals, dementia is not a normal part of the aging process.


A Forum on Dementia


Welcome to my new, redesigned blog space. Some of you might have followed my original blog about my mother and her journey through dementia. Others of you may have just discovered my site.

Since my mother’s death, and inspired by her, I have been working toward two goals. The first, at the urging of many, I have taken my blog writings and expanded them into a book. My purpose remains the same: to share my mother’s experience in the hope that it will help others. During the course of writing my blog, I spoke with others and received messages from people from all over the United States and even a few from other countries. Universally they had the same reaction “That sounds just like my mother(or whomever). I know what it’s like.” By offering my book on Amazon I hope to reach more people.

My second goal was to learn as much as I could about dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease. Public awareness of dementia has grown by leaps and bounds and medical researchers and other scientists are discovering more about it each day. Though I have gained much knowledge about it, my goal has become never ending.

My purpose for this site is to share some of what I have learned and information I have gathered from my study of dementia. There is a phethora of information out there on the web, and sifting through it all can be daunting. I don’t claim to be a medical professional or psychologist; I will leave the technical explanations up to them. What I will do is refer you to articles or web pages for more in depth knowledge. My plan is to write every two weeks about some aspect about dementia. In addition, I would like to see this web page as a place to share information and serve as a community forum for those whose lives are or have been touched by dementia. I will share names of organizations that are advocates for dementia or Alzheimers, as well as sites to go to for up-to-date information about the disease and help for caregivers. Anyone else who wishes to contribute something that others would find helpful will be encouraged to do so.